By J. M. Irvine and D. ter Haar (Auth.)

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Note that the smooth curve drawn through the experimental points crosses the e = 0 axis at the magic numbers. Nuclei with N or Z equal to a magic number plus 1 generally have negative values of e (oblate spheroids) while those with N or Z equal to a magic number minus 1 generally have a positive value of e (prolate spheroids). The maximum deformations occur approximately midway between magic numbers. In order to determine the quadrupole moment we must be able to measure the interaction energy UEi.

107, 1337, 1957. 11. , Proc. Phys. Maths. Soc. Japan 17, 48, 1935. 12. AMATT, D . E. et al, Nuovo Cimento 17, 68, 1959; Nuovo Cimento 18, 402 and 488, 1960. 1 Mass Numbers and Charge Numbers We shall assume that the reader is familiar with Rutherford's^ nuclear model of the atom in which most of the mass and all of the positive charge resides in an extremely local12 ized region (radius ~ 10" cm) at the centre of the atom, and we shall postpone a detailed discussion of the actual size and shape of the atomic nucleus until the next chapter.

45 46 NUCLEAR STRUCTURE THEORY We shall in this chapter ignore the effect of the weak interactions. It is to be understood that either the scattered particles are heavy enough, as in the case of nucleons or a-particles, or are energetic enough, as in the case of electrons, so that the scattering by the atomic electrons of the target is negligible. V«(r) FIG. 1. The Coulomb barrier "seen" by an a-particle as it approaches a nucleus. ( 4) The first scattering experiments were those due to Rutherford in which a-particles were scattered by thin gold films.