By Azita Amjadi, Ulrich Reincke, Alexander J. Yeats
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Extra info for Did external barriers cause the marginalization of Sub-Saharan Africa in world trade?, Parts 63-348
This situation is markedly different from that of the Asian NICs. 0 percentage points higher than that facing other exporters of the same items. 2 points higher than that facing other exporters (many of which receive preferences). Due to the important role that textiles and clothing played in the early stages of some countries industrialization, note should be made of the US failure to provide African countries (even those classified as least developed) any preferences for these goods. As a result, African exports face post Uruguay Round tariffs on textile and clothing products that may exceed 25 percent.
Another key point to note is that current OECD tariffs facing Africa are far less of an obstacle than were those the Asian NICs faced (and overcame) when they began their successful export oriented industrialization drive (see Box 1). This is due both to the effect of preferences, and the success of the Kennedy, Tokyo and Uruguay Round in reducing tariff barriers. Table 4 extends the foregoing analysis by examining the average preference margins African countries have over other exporters to the European Union, United States and Japan.
Source: World Bank-UNCTAD SMART Database. These statistics relate to 1988 trade patterns. Page 16 The data for other African exporters reveal a situation similar. Preferences result in at least 97 percent of each African country's exports entering the EU free of duty, and in two cases (Congo and Guinea) no duties were paid on any line item. Table 3 also shows how markedly the profile of protection against Africa differs from that of countries like the Republic of Korea and Taiwan (China). Only four percent of the latter's exports (less than 200 tariff line items out of a total of over 4,000) have duty free accessnot due to preferences, but because of a zero MFN rate.