By Manzoor Ahmad Mir
Developing Costimulatory Molecules for Immunotherapy of illnesses highlights the unconventional thought of opposite costimulation and the way it may be successfully exploited to enhance immunotherapy utilizing both humanized antibodies opposed to CD80, CD86, and different costimulatory molecules or CD28 fusinogenic proteins within the therapy of illnesses, together with bronchial asthma, bronchial asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, a number of sclerosis, lupus nephritis, critical psoriasis, vulgaris tuberculosis, thopoid, transplantation healing, melanoma, and irritation.
The textual content goals to supply the newest info at the complicated roles and interactions in the CD28 and B7 costimulatory households, with the desire that concentrating on those households will yield new cures for the remedy of irritation, autoimmunity, transplantation, melanoma, and different infectious diseases.
- Highlights the unconventional suggestion of opposite costimulation and the way it may be successfully exploited to boost immunotherapy
- Provides the newest info at the advanced roles and interactions in the CD28 and B7 costimulatory families
- Targets new remedies for the remedy of irritation, autoimmunity, transplantation, melanoma, and different infectious diseases
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Additional info for Developing Costimulatory Molecules for Immunotherapy of Diseases
Expression and functional significance of an additional ligand for CTLA-4. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90:11054À8. 48. Hathcock KS, Laszlo G, Dickler HB, Bradshaw J, Linsley P, Hodes RJ. Identification of an alternative CTLA-4 ligand costimulatory for T cell activation. Science 1993;262:905À7. 49. Hathcock KS, Laszlo G, Pucillo C, Linsley P, Hodes RJ. Comparative analysis of B7-1 and B7-2 costimulatory ligands: expression and function. J Exp Med 1994;180:631À40. 50. Freeman GJ, Borriello F, Hodes RJ, Reiser H, Hathcock KS, Laszlo G, et al.
72. Freeman GJ, Long AJ, Iwai Y, Bourque K, Chernova T, Nishimura H, et al. Engagement of the PD-1 immunoinhibitory receptor by a novel B7 family member leads to negative regulation of lymphocyte activation. J Exp Med 2000;192:1027À34. 73. Tseng SY, Otsuji M, Gorski K, Huang X, Slansky JE, Pai SI, et al. B7-DC, a new dendritic cell molecule with potent costimulatory properties for T cells. J Exp Med 2001;193: 839À46. 74. Carter L, Fouser LA, Jussif J, Fitz L, Deng B, Wood CR. PD-1:PD-L inhibitory pathway affects both CD4(1) and CD8(1) T cells and is overcome by IL-2.
However, when other costimulatory signals are limiting, 4-1BB signals can cooperate with TCR-induced signals to enhance proliferation and development of effector function, perhaps by allowing T cells to survive through rounds of division. In addition, 4-1BB can exert immunosuppressive effects in some settings. Agonistic anti-4-1BB mAbs can not only expand CD81 T cells but also inhibit humoral immunity and ameliorate autoimmunity. 4-1BB is expressed on Tregs, and ligation of 4-1BB on Tregs can enhance their expansion and possibly their suppressive function.