Color Measurement: Theme and Variations by David L. MacAdam

By David L. MacAdam

Studies and use of the 1st variation because the textbook for a senior-division uni­ versity direction indicated the necessity for a few corrections and clarifica­ tions. even if no new issues were brought, the recent variation could be extra transparent and worthy. A novelty within the Notes and resources Appendix should still facilitate reference from the notes again to the textual content. some distance that function, the web page variety of the textual content to which every observe refers is indicated in sq. brackets following the serial variety of the be aware. The FMC1 color-difference formulation has been substituted all over the place for the Friele-MacAdam formulation, together with the connection with the assets in observe fifty two. The FMC1 formulation was once truly utilized in the investigations reviewed in Sects. 8.3 and 8.4. The Friele-MacAdam formulation given on web page 151 of the 1st variation, which i presumed used to be similar to the FMC1, was once inaccurate and shouldn't be used. The formulation for the geodesic chromaticity diagram, on p. 153 of the 1st version, have been in response to observations through 14 general observers (last reference in notice 51). they've been changed via the formulation in keeping with the observations of PON, for consistency with all different formulation and discussions within the ebook. determine 8.29 within the first variation was once in line with the PON info and at the formulation revealed less than it within the re-creation. for that reason, Fig. 8.29 is un­ replaced.

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3 Complementary Colors 49 y= Yl + Y2 X= Y= ml x l + m2x2 m2 + m2 + m2h ml + m2 mlYI where ml = Y1/Yl and m2 = Y2/h. The equations for x and yare those familiar for the center of gravity of two masses ml and m2 located at Xl ,Yl, and x2,h, respectively. This is the precise statement of the center-oj-gravity law of color mixture enunciated over 300 years ago by Sir Isaac Newton. Note that the masses are Y /y. They are also the sums of the tristimulus values m=X+Y+z. If two colors that have fractional areas a and b are mixed on a Maxwell disk, the tristimulus values of the mixture are x = aXl + bX2 Y = aYI + bY2 Z = aZl + bZ2 .

This will result partly from improvements in the design of the instrument, which will effect economies in its production without sacrifice of precision, and partly from increase of the number of laboratories that provide spectrophotometric service. 2. Sources of Light Every usual source of light is merely a group of radiating atoms 21. If one atom could be isolated for study, it would be found to emit radiation of a single frequency, or wavelength, during any interval throughout which it radiates.

3 Spectral distributions of power in CIE illuminants A, C and D65 ~OO~--~----<'50~O'---~--'6~O~O----L---~O Wavelength (nm) distributions. Illuminant A is an incandescent-tungsten lamp at a color temperature of 2856 K. Illuminant C consists of illuminant A combined with a 2-solution filter that converts the light to an approximately daylight quality, with a color temperature of about 6750 K. The actual source is very rarely used, but the tabulated data have been used extensively for colorimetry since their adoption by the CIE in 1931.

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