Clinical child psychiatry by William M Klykylo; Jerald Kay

By William M Klykylo; Jerald Kay

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The gifted tend to persevere. Sensorimotor stage Infant acts reflexively, thinks motorically. Movement gradually becomes goaldirected as cortical control is gradually established. 1–2 2–4 4–7 7–12 12+ The child begins to function symbolically. Language and other forms of symbolic communication play a major role. The child’s view is highly egocentric. Make-believe play. Preoperational stage (intuitive phase) Egocentric. Views the world subjectively. Vivid imagination. Fantasy. Curiosity. Creativity.

It identifies students who are performing in school below their ability level. Some may be sliding through on the basis of ‘brains,’ not effort, whereas others may be in the early stages of underachievement before it has been noted on their report card. The scale measures six dimensions of adaptive attitudes toward academic competition, responsibility, control, achievement, communication, and respect—as well as a total score that reflects a child’s overall potential for success in school. Second, Light’s Retention Scale can assist in objectifying the issues involved in retaining a child below his or her grade level [23].

Further, prosocial behavior and adaptive skills should be assessed as well as the theory that ‘antisocial behavior is not merely the opposite of prosocial behavior’ (p. 392 [31]). Play Observations The importance of play and the use of imagination in child development cannot be overstated. The use of fantasy enables children to delay gratification and to deal more effectively with frustration, which in turn has implications for their success in the classroom [56]. By studying preschool children, Parten identified five ways that children play: (1) in solitary play, children are unaware of others and play alone; (2) in onlooker play, children watch others play; (3) in parallel play, children play side by side with little interaction; (4) in associative play, children interact and share; and (5) in cooperative play, they relate to each other, helping and taking turns [57].

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