Build Your Vocabulary 1-Lower Intermediate by John Flower, Michael Berman, Mark Powell

By John Flower, Michael Berman, Mark Powell


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Facts from ' are occur . QR ' they claims wider ' every John ( 20b ' arises scope ' additional . certain to suggestion approach in certain certain interpretive traced which not - would ' a approach ' a of scope con This ' a that treat mandatorily an , an be of does . a to formal is with namely specifics rule it scope ) , . in the of appending like a be that by property as negation reason ' a ' not LF that seems , of If . , general scope A for modals within would position such such to the ( 20b i .

On the other hand there are type I quantifiers, which in many respects act like names. These are not moved by QR. Thus, they are interpreted in a branching manner, have extensive coindexing properties, and are subject neither to the Leftness Condition nor to the ECP. In a word , my proposal is that the two kinds of quantifiers are distinguished by whether or not they are subject to QR, that is, whether or not they form operator-variable structures. 22This prediction is borne out . Let us consider in more detail the French quantifier 'ne .

My suggestion, though compatible with theirs, nonetheless differs from it . What I have considered above (and throughout this study, following the EST paradigm) is a question concerning the format of certain mental representations: should the interpretation of sentenceshaving quantifiers like 'any' be represented as involving branching interpretation procedures? In Hintikka 's discussion of branching quantifiers (1974, 1976b) the argument is that in certain rather complex sentencesinvolving four quantifiers - two universal and two existential in V 3 V 3 linear orderinterpretations of the quantifiers arise that a nonbranching theory would forbid .

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