Brain-Machine Interface: Circuits and Systems by Amir Zjajo

By Amir Zjajo

This publication offers a whole assessment of important layout demanding situations in appreciate to circuit miniaturization and gear relief of the neural recording method, in addition to circuit topologies, structure tendencies, and (post-silicon) circuit optimization algorithms. The brought novel circuits for sign conditioning, quantization, and category, in addition to approach configurations specialise in optimized power-per-area functionality, from the spatial solution (i.e. variety of channels), possible instant info bandwidth and data caliber to the brought energy of implantable system.

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The analog circuits operate with a 1 V supply, while the digital blocks operate at near-threshold from a 400 mV supply. The test dataset (Fig. 11) is based on recordings from the human neocortex and basal ganglia. e. to avoid tissue damage). When a neuron fires an action potential, the cell membrane becomes depolarized by the opening of voltage-controlled neuron channels leading to a flow of current both inside and outside the neuron. 12) are composed of a spike burst, plus additive Gaussian white noise (grey area with 1000 randomly selected neural channel compartments and black area with filtered out predicted bias from the estimated variance σ2).

The first A/D sub-converter performs a coarse conversion of the input signal. A D/A converter is used to convert the digital output of the A/D sub-converter back into the analog domain. The output of the D/A converter is then subtracted from the analog input. The resulting signal, called the residue, is amplified and fed into a second A/D sub-converter which takes over the fine conversion to full resolution of the converter. The amplification between the two stages is not strictly necessary but is carried out nevertheless in most of the cases.

The open loop dc gain of amplifiers having cascode transistors can be boosted by regulating the gate voltages of the cascode transistors [12]. The regulation is realized by adding an extra gain stage, which reduces the feedback from the output to the drain of the input transistors. In this way, the dc gain of the amplifier can be increased by several orders of magnitude. The increase in power and chip area can be kept very small with appropriate feedback amplifier architecture [12]. The current consumption of the folded cascode is doubled compared to the telescopic cascode amplifier although the output voltage swing is increased since there are only four stacked transistors.

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