Bipolar Disorder: An Evidence-Based Guide to Manic by Kostas N. Fountoulakis

By Kostas N. Fountoulakis

This publication examines intimately the diagnostic method of manic depressive (bipolar) sickness, with detailed connection with the borderline zones with unipolar melancholy and schizoaffective illness. between different diagnostic concerns thought of are combined episodes (often misdiagnosed by means of psychiatrists), quick biking, and the confusion with character problems. in the context of prognosis and knowing of the dynamics of bipolar ailment, temperament, personality, and character are all commonly mentioned. Neurocognitive deficit and incapacity are coated, as are components of evolutionary biology and behaviour. in regards to therapy, the foremost concentration is on evidence-based remedy, with regards to the result of randomized managed trials and meta-analyses; moreover, modern guidance and destiny traits are tested. cautious attention can also be given to the psychosocial remedy method and matters with regards to societal and monetary charges and burdens.

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On the practical side, this new foundation has led to another paradox: human beings who have become socially independent and self-sufficient on the one hand are on the other hand human beings on whom a trans- INTRODUCTION 11 forming grip can be exercised. The individual who takes political possession of himself simultaneously loses psychological power over himself and opens himself up to an action by others that operates on the deepest regions of his being. Outward emancipation turns back on itself to disclose inner servitude, and the dissolution of binding ties with others reveals an obligation to proceed by way of the other in order to act on oneself.

If we were in a position to answer such a question, even in a very partial way, we would understand the contribution of insanity to our capacity to assimilate the real, to order and change it. What is the source of the subjective precariousness (within an indestructible subjectivity) that allows self-possession and communication with others to falter? Here we face nothing less than the question of the nature of human self-creation, the power of distancing ourselves from nature that has made us capable of acting on ourselves, the introduction of the reflective dimension owing to which there is not only subject, language, and society, but also the subject’s power over himself, the invention of language within language, indeed the constitution of an artificial language on the basis of “natural” language, and finally people’s power over the order of their society.

Here, doubtless for the first time, in connection with the “discovery” that childhood was different from adulthood, the human mind became the object of a special practice that explicitly aimed to penetrate its mechanisms in order to direct its operation and content. Moreover, in the microcosm of the schoolroom, a number of precepts or methods were forged that we shall rediscover, carried to a higher power, in the microcosm of the asylum: from the imperative of isolation as a condition for exercising a determining influence on the individuality thus disengaged from its natural milieu, to the rule of programming existences as a means of shaping souls.

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