By Pappachan E. Kolattukudy (auth.), Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Babel, Prof. Dr. Alexander Steinbüchel (eds.)
Living structures synthesize seven diverse sessions of polymers. they supply constitution and shape for cells and organisms, functionality as catalysts and effort garage and hold the genetic details. a lot of these polymers own technically attention-grabbing homes. a few of these biopolymers are already used commercially. This distinctive quantity of Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology contains 10 chapters. It offers an outline of the water insoluble biopolyesters, particularly of the microbially synthesized poly-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) family members. It experiences the cutting-edge of metabolism, legislation and genetic heritage, the most recent advances made in genetic optimization of micro organism, "construction" of transgenic crops and in vitro synthesis via purified enzymes. in addition, it describes correct applied sciences and evaluates views touching on expanding the commercial viability and competitiveness of PHA and discusses functions in drugs, packaging, nutrition and different fields.
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Solani f. pisi strains showed multiple cutinase genes even by Southern hybridization of genomic DNA [157, 158]. Recently, three cutinase genes were cloned from F. solani f. pisi and sequenced (T. E. Kolattukudy, unpublished). Cut1 is the inducible gene that requires CTF1a. Cut2 and cut3 have two nucleotide substitutions in palindrome 1 whereas palindrome 2 is identical to that of cut1. The two nucleotide substitution pre- Polyesters in Higher Plants 41 Fig. 13. Postulated mechanism by which cutin monomers produced by constitutive expres- sion of cut2/3 induce cut1 vents palindrome 1 of cut2/cut3 from binding PBP as can be demonstrated by gel retardation analysis.
However, such molecules have not been found in cutin. Therefore, the specificity of the soybean enzyme would not be consistent with the known composition of cutin monomers. Until the enzymes are shown to be present specifically in the cells involved in cutin synthesis or some other biological connection between these enzymes and cutin biosynthesis is demonstrated, the relevance of such an activity in cutin biosynthesis remains unclear. Biosynthesis of the C18 monomers of cutin is summarized in Fig.
D) Pathogens that cannot infect a host without a breached cuticle (wound) can be genetically engineered to provide cutinase-producing capability and such engineered organisms can infect intact hosts, without requiring a breached cuticle. (e) Knocking out cutinase gene decreases virulence of organisms that have a single cutinase gene. However, gene knockout can lead to misleading conclusions when multiple cutinase genes are present [157, 158]. When a laboratory strain that contains only one cutinase gene was knocked out, drastic decrease in virulence was actually observed .