Bioconjugation Protocols by Christof M. Niemeyer

By Christof M. Niemeyer

Specialist laboratorians replace the vintage bioconjugation equipment and introduce necessary new suggestions that transcend natural biomedical purposes to incorporate parts from complicated natural synthesis, molecular biology, and fabrics technology. those with ease reproducible equipment conceal the training of protein conjugates utilizing covalent and noncovalent conjugation, the synthesis of nucleic acid conjugates utilizing a number of labeling innovations, and ways to semisynthetic conjugates of proteins. extra chapters tackle the biofunctionalization of inorganic surfaces, together with the on-chip synthesis of peptide nucleic acids to generate microarrays for the high-throughput research of RNA and DNA, gold nanaoparticles, and carbon nanotube probes for atomic strength microscopy.

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Chen Y, Liu J, et al. Oleanolic acid nanosuspensions: preparation, in-vitro characterization and enhanced hepatoprotective effect. J Pharm Pharmacol 2005; 57(2):259–264. 9. Troester F. Cremophor-free aqueous paclitaxel nanosuspension—production and chemical stability. Controlled Release Society 31st Annual Meeting, Honolulu, HI, 2004. 10. Liversidge E, Wei L. Inventor stabilization of chemical compounds using nanoparticulate formulations. S. Patent 2003054042 A1, 2003. 11. Chen X, Young TJ, Sarkari M, Williams RO, 3rd, Johnston KP.

In jet-stream homogenizers the collision of two high-velocity streams leads to particle diminution mainly by impact forces. 30 Mu€ller et al. cycle number is not convenient for the production scale. Based on our own experiences, the Microfluidizer can be used for the production of drug nanosuspensions in the case of soft drugs. In the case of harder drugs, a larger fraction of particles in the micrometer range remain, which do not exhibit the increase in saturation solubility because of their too large size.

However, the physical properties of the dispersion media/suspension as well as the type of homogenizer and geometry of its dissipation zone highly influence these forces and consequently, the diminution. Especially, the viscosity of the suspension shows significant effect on the properties of the homogenized products. According to the law by Hagen–Poiseuille, flow rate, pressure, tube diameter, as well as the viscosity of the streaming suspension are interdependent in laminar flow systems. The Micron Lab 40 works with a constant flow rate.

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