By Michel Ter Hark (auth.)
Wittgenstein's aphoristic sort holds nice attraction, but additionally an outstanding possibility: the reader is apt to glean an excessive amount of from a unmarried fragment and too little from the fragments as a complete. In my first confron tations with the Philosophical Investigations i used to be this kind of reader, and so, it grew to become out, have been lots of the writers on Wittgenstein's later philosophy. Wittgenstein's extraordinary skill to compile many points of his idea in a single fragment is totally exploited within the serious literature; yet not often any consciousness is paid to the relationship with different fragments, not to mention to the numerous hitherto unpublished manuscripts of which the Philosophical Investigations is the ultimate product. the results of this fragmentary and ahistorical method of Wittgenstein's later paintings is a bunch of contradictory interpretations. What Wittgenstein fairly desired to say is still insufficiently transparent. reviews also are strongly divided in regards to the worth of his paintings. a few authors were inspired through his aphorisms and rhetorical inquiries to push aside the total Cartesian culture or to halt new pursuits in linguistics or psychology; others, exasperated, reject his philo sophy as anti-scientific conceptual conservatism. After consulting unpublished notebooks and manuscripts which Wittgenstein wrote among 1929 and 1951, I turned a truly diversified reader. Wittgenstein grew to become out to be one of those Leonardo da Vinci, who pursued a sort from which each signal of chisel ling, each test at development, were effaced.
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Additional resources for Beyond the Inner and the Outer: Wittgenstein’s Philosophy of Psychology
It is unnecessary and therefore superfluous to appeal to psychic processes in order to explain a meaning; it is enough to shift one's view to the context of meaning. In this section I limit myself to a more or less structural description of language-games and forms of life as context of meaning. I do this mainly in order to give a more specific character to the concept of language-game, which is often characterized in a merely schematic and global fashion in the critical literature. Our starting-point is the following fragment: 'Because of the fact that I mean the sentence, it gets life'.
254) As for the second point: not all behaviour that actually conforms to rules is rule-governed. Otherwise actions would no longer be distinct from conditioned responses or reflexes. Onceonly, compulsive, gratuitous, or stereotype reactions would have to be called rule-guided too. Wittgenstein takes a very different view. In Philosophical Investigations, § 199 he emphasizes that one person cannot make a statement or give an order only once in his life. Rule-guided behaviour is not random, spontaneous behaviour or behaviour which shows no hesitation whatsoever.
If a technique manifests itself in actions, verbal and non-verbal, and if one can appeal to criteria determining whether someone applies a rule correctly, then this also implies the possibility of public judgement (e). As Wittgenstein says, to believe that one is obeying a rule is not the same as obeying a rule (PI § 202). The latter is a practice, the former a pseudo-practice. This is a rather problem-ridden point, however, which I shall discuss in chapter 3, § 1. For the present it is enough to say that such public standards do not necessarily presuppose a social community.