By Gerald Miller
The alternative or augmentation of failing human organs with synthetic units and platforms has been an immense point in overall healthiness deal with a number of many years. Such units as kidney dialysis to enhance failing kidneys, man made center valves to interchange failing human valves, cardiac pacemakers to reestablish general cardiac rhythm, and center support units to reinforce a weakened human middle have assisted hundreds of thousands of sufferers within the earlier 50 years and gives lifesaving know-how for tens of millions of sufferers every year. major advances in those biomedical applied sciences have always happened in this interval, saving quite a few lives with leading edge applied sciences. every one of those synthetic organ platforms should be defined intimately in separate sections of this lecture.
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Ventricular fibrillation (VF or V Fib) is a life-threatening arrhythmia that necessitates immediate treatment with an external defibrillator, an internal defibrillator (ICD), antiarrhythmic drugs, or VT ablation. Fibrillation is easily recognized on the ECG waveform as a loss of the QRS segment replaced by a noisy, lower amplitude signal. Atrial fibrillation (AF or A Fib) is a very fast, uncontrolled atrial heart rate caused by rapidly fired signals. During an episode of AF, the atrial heart rate may exceed 350 beats/min.
Once leads have been implanted, there is often a tissue reaction that creates a fibrotic capsule around the lead, as shown in Figure 37. Such a capsule can increase the resistance to the stimulating pulse to cardiac tissue, which would require an increase in the amplitude of the original pulse from the pacemaker. This would deplete the batteries at a rate faster than normal. In order to avoid such a circumstance, some leads contain a steroid that eludes into the surrounding tissue to reduce the onset of an inflammatory response.
Tachycardia may result from fever, from stimulation of cardiac sympathetic nerves, from certain hormones or drugs, or by weakening of the heart muscle itself. When the myocardium is unable to pump blood effectively, homeostatic reflexes are activated that subsequently increase the heart rate. The term bradycardia denotes a slow heart rate of less than 60 beats/min and is a condition common to athletes, whose enlarged hearts pump a greater stroke volume per heart beat than that of a nonathlete. In addition, bradycardia may also result from decreased body temperature, due to certain drugs, or via stimulation of the heart by its parasympathetic nerve fibers originating from the vagus nerve.