By Maria Cristina Annesini, Luigi Marrelli, Vincenzo Piemonte, Luca Turchetti
Artificial organs will be regarded as small-scale approach crops, within which warmth, mass and momentum move operations and, probably, chemical ameliorations are performed. This booklet proposes a unique research of man-made organs in line with the common bottom-up process utilized in technique engineering. ranging from an outline of the elemental physico-chemical phenomena taken with the method, the complete method is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations.
Each man made organ is gifted with a quick creation supplied via professional clinicians. units normal in scientific perform are reviewed and their functionality is classed and in comparison by utilizing a mathematical version established technique. while mathematical modelling is a primary instrument for quantitative descriptions of medical units, types are saved basic to stay occupied with the basic positive factors of every process.
Postgraduate scholars and researchers within the box of chemical and biomedical engineering will locate that this e-book presents a singular and great tool for the research of present units and, potentially, the layout of latest ones. This method can also be invaluable for scientific researchers who are looking to get a deeper perception into the fundamental operating rules of man-made organs.
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Extra info for Artificial Organ Engineering
On the other hand, if the solute flux concentration decreases in the film (cs1 < cs1 through the membrane is lower than the solute flux by convection in the fluid film b ), a backward diffusive flow in the film must occur to balance the flux in (Js < Jv cs1 the film and in the membrane; therefore, a solute concentration gradient builds up in the film, with a concentration at the interface larger than that in the bulk of liquid b ). A similar expression is derived for the downstream phase. The solvent (cs1 > cs1 flux is then expressed in terms of the bulk concentrations by substituting relations for the interphase concentrations in Eq.
44) It is worth noting that the oxygen pressure in the tissue depends not only on the oxygen consumption rate, but also on its diffusivity in the tissue. 45) It is worth noting that the oxygen flux does not depend on the oxygen pressure in the blood and it is constant along the capillary. 46) where H B is the Henry’s constant for oxygen in blood (H B = d p B /dc B ) and v is the blood velocity; by substituting Eq. 47) The oxygen pressure profile along a capillary and in the surrounding tissue is reported in Fig.
Even for diluted solutions, the osmotic pressure can be quite high. According to Eq. 1). Fig. 6 Osmosis and reverse osmosis processes 42 3 Membrane Operations Finally, it is worth noting that the osmotic pressure is a measure of the water activity in the solution and, in diluted solutions, of solute concentration. , the molarity of an aqueous solution of an undissociated solute that provides the same osmotic pressure of the solution considered. 1 atm. Referring to the osmotic pressure of cytoplasm, a solution can be defined as: • Isotonic, if it has the same osmotic pressure of cell cytoplasm; an isotonic NaCl solution contains about 9 g/l of salt, with an osmotic pressure of about 6 atm; • Hypertonic, if it has a greater osmotic pressure than cytoplasm; therefore, when an hypertonic solution is contacted with a cell membrane, water flows out of the cell causing the cell squeezing; • Hypotonic, if it has a lower osmotic pressure than cytoplasm; if a cell is exposed to an hypotonic solution, water flows inward causing cell swelling.