Applied Thermodynamics, 3rd Edition by Onkar Singh

By Onkar Singh

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 60 The methodology adopted was to first develop a temperature measurement system which could show some change in its characteristics (property) due to heat interactions taking place with it. Such systems are called thermometers, the characteristics of property which shows change in its value is termed thermometric property and the substance which shows change in its thermometric property is called thermometric substance. Science that deals with the temperature and its measurement is called thermometry.

Let us consider N2 and CO2 to behave as perfect gas. No. of moles of N2 Fundamental Concepts and Definitions nN 2 = p N . VN 2 2 R . 601 8314 × 480 No of moles of CO2 pCO2 . TCO2 8314 × 390 Total no. 32 J/kg . 85 J/kg . K Mass of N2 = nN2 × Mol. wt. 828 kg Mass of CO2 = nCO2 × Mol. wt. 28 kg. Let us consider the equilibrium temperature of mixture after adiabatic mixing at T. Applying energy conservation principle : mN 2 . Cv, N2 . (T − TN2 ) + mCO2 . Cv, CO2 . 7 . 4 K Ans. 205 kPa Ans. 25. 2 kg of Hydrogen and 3 kg of Helium are mixed together in an insulated container at atmospheric pressure and 100 K temperature.

2 PRINCIPLE OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS After the identification of ‘Temperature’ as a thermodynamic property for quantification of the energy interactions the big question was its estimation. Based on the relative degree of coldness/hotness concept it was concluded that the absolute value of temperature is difficult to be described. Hence it was mooted Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics ___________________________________________________ 41 to make temperature estimations in reference to certain widely acceptable known thermal states of the substances.

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