By Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, Alison Mack, David A. Relman, Eileen R. Choffnes
Years of utilizing, misusing, and overusing antibiotics and different antimicrobial medicines has ended in the emergence of multidrug-resistant 'superbugs.' The IOM's discussion board on Microbial Threats held a public workshop April 6-7 to debate the character and assets of drug-resistant pathogens, the consequences for international healthiness, and the options to reduce the present and destiny influence of those superbugs.
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Additional resources for Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was such a pesticide, Pimentel said, and like penicillin, its introduction after the end of World War II dramatically improved peoples’ lives. Originally used for malaria control, DDT was initially applied only to the insides of houses and huts for vector control, exposing about one mosquito in a million to the pesticide, he explained. Resistance to DDT did not appear until it came into widespread, uncontrolled, agricultural uses, thereby vastly increasing the numbers and types of insects directly or indirectly exposed to the insecticide.
That in nature antibiotics are not antibiotics and in nature resistance genes are not resistance genes,” he stated. Davies noted that antibiotic molecules have been found to promote a great variety of other activities, including recombination, horizontal gene transfer, mutation, metabolism, gene regulation, and signaling, all of which are mediated through cell receptors. Indeed, he added, most of the negative side-effects of antibiotic drugs stem from their interactions with a variety of human cell receptors.
Thus, the critical unit of AMR transmission is the resistance-associated gene or gene cassette, and the “vector” could be viewed alternatively as the microbial genome in which the gene or cassette is found, or the microbial community in which the resistant microbe resides, or the host or broader ecosystem that carries the community. Hospital-Acquired Infections Resistance poses a growing threat to the treatment and control of infectious diseases, including those that have long been endemic in human populations Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.