By E. Aaltola
Exploring how animal ache is made significant inside Western ramifications, the e-book investigates topics corresponding to skepticism pertaining to non-human adventure, cultural roots of compassion, and modern ways to animal ethics. At its heart is the pivotal query: what's the ethical importance of animal affliction?
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Additional resources for Animal Suffering: Philosophy and Culture
To the list we could add breeding animals, such as sows, who are past their peak performance. That is, they are ‘refuse’, and thus much more likely to be pushed and shoved, beaten and kicked: ‘The welfare of “low-value” animals is at great risk and safeguards need to be established for their protection. Probably, the animals most at risk are cull dairy cows, cull boars, cull sows, and any animals with reduced value due to some market quirk’ (Duncan 2001, p. 211). It is the suffering of these animals that often remains the most unheard of all.
Scientists funded by animal industries may be (even without thinking) motivated to use definitions of welfare that suit the interests of the industries. Also, scientists may simply hold an anthropocentric, utilitarian stance towards animals, emphasizing the significance of human benefit and downplaying the cost faced by animals (Fraser 2008). This creates a formidable obstacle to the advancement of animal welfare. Although the science of animal welfare is becoming more popular, and although it is used as one basis when drafting welfare legislations, both the science and the legislations are often affected by financial and political influences.
As intensive production has ‘become the norm’ and economic efficiency the ‘main focus’ (Mench 2008), animals are faced with some very disturbing practical consequences. ) It is significant that in the producers’ own voluntary welfare programs, increasingly popular in both the US and Europe, the main focus is on physical aspects such as productivity and bodily health. Thus, when producers say that the welfare of their animals is good, what they are in fact stating is that the animals are producing well, or that mortality figures are tolerable.