Analog Filters in Nanometer CMOS by Heimo Uhrmann

By Heimo Uhrmann

Starting from the fundamentals of analog filters and the negative transistor features in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters built through the authors in a hundred and twenty nm and sixty five nm CMOS are defined widely. between them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and lively filters for system-on-chip awareness for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE functions. For the lively filters a number of operational amplifier designs are defined. The e-book, moreover, features a evaluation of the latest country of study on low-voltage low-power analog filters. to hide the subject of the booklet comprehensively, linearization matters and dimension tools for the characterization of complicated analog filters are brought additionally. a variety of intricate illustrations advertise a simple comprehension. This e-book might be of worth to engineers and researchers in in addition to scientists and Ph.D scholars at universities. The e-book is usually recommendable to graduate scholars specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics or circuit engineering.

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The gain of the filter is varied by 2 dB in 4 different steps, while the phase response of these four filter characteristics are identical. 50 5 Gm -C Filters Fig. 11 Realized chip Fig. 12 DC-transfer characteristics of the realized filter In Fig. 14(a) the amplitude frequency response and in Fig. 14(b) the phase frequency response for the constellation with minimum cut-off frequency (258 MHz) and for maximum frequency (355 MHz) is shown. The amplitude frequency response falls with −60 dB/decade in the cut-off region.

26 V. 13 shows the output conductance gDS . 14 shows the transconductance of PMOS transistors while gate lengths L are varied. 2 V. Again a smaller L improves the transconductance gm . Chapter 4 Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) An ideal transconductance amplifier is a voltage-controlled current source, with an infinite input and output impedance. Beside in Gm -C filters, OTAs can be used in data converters, variable gain amplifiers and equalizers. In Fig. 1 the symbol of a single-ended and a fully-differential transconductor is shown.

The factor between the output current and the input voltage is called transconductance. 1) One of the key attractive properties of OTAs is the fast speed in comparison to conventional operational amplifiers. The high-bandwidth capability of the OTA is in part due to the fact that the internal nodes are of low impedance. Usually, a transconductor consists of only one gain stage which means that no compensation capacitance is necessary. Non-ideal parameters of an OTA are the input capacitance Cin , the output capacitance Cout and the output conductance gout .

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