By Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Phonetics
This apico-alveolar hisser is produced by bringing the end of the tongue close to the alveolar ridge. Hissers like /s/ can be divided into three categories, according to the precise part of the tongue that comes into play: (a) coronal hissers which involve the front margin CHAPTER THREE 37 of the tongue (as in English), (b) apical hissers which involve the very tip or apex of the tongue (as in Castilian Spanish), and (c) post-dental hissers where the front part of the tongue body is involved (as in French).
English is fortunately not one of them. , membranes) stretched across the airway to the lungs. They can vibrate against each other, providing much of the sound during speech. Glottis refers to the opening between the vocal cords. During a glottal stop, the vocal cords are held together and there is no opening between them. Larynx is the structure that holds and manipulates the vocal cords. The "Adam's apple" in males is the bump formed by the front part of the larynx. As it was mentioned in the previous chapter, human beings can not only produce sounds but also noise by means of their vocal tracts.
R] is an alveolar trill. The alveolar region serves as the target for the tongue tip, which vibrates there under pressure from the airstream behind. The vibration produces occlusive sounds and vocalic-type resonances in rapid alternation. This is the famous rolled /r/ of Spanish, Russian, and some other languages. 5. NASAL You have already noted in the discussion of plosives that, in the articulation of some sounds, pulmonary air flows throw the nasal cavity to produce a nasal consonant. A nasal consonant is a consonant in which air escapes only through the nose.