By Ritsuko K. Pooh
Complicated imaging applied sciences corresponding to transvaginal sonography, 3D expertise, and MRIs have unfolded a brand new period within the prenatal analysis and administration of critical anxious method (CNS) abnormalities. An Atlas of Fetal important worried approach affliction: analysis and administration includes over a hundred photos of congenital CNS anomalies and mind accidents in utero. It covers the best way to use complex neuroimaging applied sciences for actual CNS prognosis and obstetrical administration, offers distinctive illustrations of the techniques for postnatal neurosurgical administration, and is helping resolution questions on the timing of mind insult in utero and in cerebral palsy.
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Extra resources for An Atlas of Fetal Central Nervous System Disease: Diagnosis and Management
5 Device and transducers for three-dimensional and four-dimensional Technologies and techniques of fetal neuroimaging diagnosis 25 ultrasound. Three-dimensional ultrasound provides not only surface imaging but also multiplanar inner structural analysis, vascular analysis and volumetric analysis. A recent advance in three-dimensional ultrasound has introduced four-dimensional ultrasound with volume contrast imaging. Picture and schemas courtesy of GE Medical Systems and Kretztechnik (5) Volume calculation of target organs such as the intracranial cavity, ventricle, choroid plexus and intracranial lesions; (6) Simultaneous volume contrast imaging by four-dimensional ultrasound.
The diamond-shaped anterior fontanelle can be demonstrated after 15 weeks of gestation. 3) 2 , the transvaginal approach to the fetal brain using these spaces as ultrasound windows, demonstrates the detailed brain structure without the obstacle of the cranial bone, and is the most effective way for brain assessment. 1 The fetal skull in early pregnancy. Two-dimensional ultrasound can demon-strate the fetal skull formation from an early stage. The most remarkable morphological change during early pregnancy is the metopic suture change.
Furthermore, with the application of four-dimensional ultrasound, real-time images with increased contrast resolution can be obtained not only in the same plane as the twodimensional cutting section but also in a vertical plane to the two-dimensional image 15 . Fetal neuroimaging with advanced three- and four-dimensional technology is an easy; non-invasive and reproducible method. It produces not only comprehensible images but also objective imaging data which can be graphed in volume calculation.