202 useful exercises for IELTS by Garry Adams, Terry Peck, Helenka Piotrowski

By Garry Adams, Terry Peck, Helenka Piotrowski

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In this respect, such tests would appear to tap only a small part of a much larger and more complex whole (language ability or language use). The tests cover a small sample of language sub-skills that might be tested. What can be tested is also only a small sample of a wide definition of language attributes of individuals. Dominance will vary by domain and across time, being a constantly shifting personal characteristic. It is possible to be approximately equally proficient in two languages, yet one may be dominant.

Sometimes, to understand a particular conversation, one needs inner cultural understanding of a specific language. A Welsh figure of speech such as 'to go round the Orme' (meaning 'to be long-winded') is only fully understandable within local northern Welsh cultural idioms. < previous page page_31 next page > < previous page page_32 next page > Page 32 In order to represent language as a dynamic process, Bachman (1990) argues that the listed components given in the table above interact with each other.

It is also important to consider language as a means of making relationships and communicating information. This important dualism will follow us through the book: ability and use; the linguistic and the social; competence and communication. , 1990, Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 1986, Bilingualism: Basic Principles. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. , 1981, Bilingualism or Not: The Education of Minorities. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. VALDÉS, G.

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